Stalking laws by State

We have created this list to assist victims of stalking. This is not a complete list of stalking laws but will provide a basic understanding. We are working on this until all states are included.

Alabama

Code of Ala. § 13A-6-90. Stalking in the first degree. (2012) (a) A person who intentionally and repeatedly follows or harasses another person and who makes a threat, either expressed or implied, with the intent to place that person in reasonable fear of death or serious bodily harm is guilty of the crime of stalking in the first degree. (b) The crime of stalking in the first degree is a Class C felony. Code of Ala. § 13A-6-90.1. Stalking in the second degree. (2012) (a) A person who, acting with an improper purpose, intentionally and repeatedly follows, harasses, telephones, or initiates communication, verbally, electronically, or otherwise, with another person, any member of the other person’s immediate family, or any third party with whom the other person is acquainted, and causes material harm to the mental or emotional health of the other person, or causes such person to reasonably fear that his or her employment, business, or career is threatened, and the perpetrator was previously informed to cease that conduct is guilty of the crime of stalking in the second degree. (b) The crime of stalking in the second degree is a Class B misdemeanor. Code of Ala. § 13A-6-91. Aggravated stalking in the first degree. (2012) (a) A person who violates the provisions of Section 13A-6-90(a) and whose conduct in doing so also violates any court order or injunction is guilty of the crime of aggravated stalking in the first degree. (b) The crime of aggravated stalking in the first degree is a Class B felony. Code of Ala. § 13A-6-91.1. Aggravated stalking in the second degree (2012) (a) A person who violates the provisions of Section 13A-6-90.1 and whose conduct in doing so also violates any court order or injunction is guilty of the crime of aggravated stalking in the second degree. (b) The crime of aggravated stalking in the second degree is a Class C felony. Code of Ala. § 13A-6-92. Definitions. (1994) As used in this article, the following terms shall have the following meanings, respectively, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. (a) Course of conduct. A pattern of conduct composed of a series of acts over a period of time which evidences a continuity of purpose. (b) Credible threat. A threat, expressed or implied, made with the intent and the apparent ability to carry out the threat so as to cause the person who is the target of the threat to fear for his or her safety or the safety of a family member and to cause reasonable mental anxiety, anguish, or fear. (c) Harasses. Engages in an intentional course of conduct directed at a specified person which alarms or annoys that person, or interferes with the freedom of movement of that person, and which serves no legitimate purpose. The course of conduct must be such as would cause a reasonable person to suffer substantial emotional distress, and must actually cause substantial emotional distress. Constitutionally protected conduct is not included within the definition of this term. Code of Ala. § 13A-6-93. Construction; similar provisions. (1992) This article shall not be construed to repeal other criminal laws. Whenever conduct prescribed by any provision of this article is also prescribed by any other provision of law, the provision which carries the more serious penalty shall be applied. Code of Ala. § 13A-6-94. Construction; constitutionality of article. (1992) This article shall be construed and, if necessary, reconstrued to sustain its constitutionality.

Alaska
Alaska Stat. § 11.41.260 Stalking in the first degree. (2006) (a) A person commits the crime of stalking in the first degree if the person violates AS 11.41.270 and (1) the actions constituting the offense are in violation of an order issued or filed under AS 18.66.100 — 18.66.180 or issued under former AS 25.35.010(b) or 25.35.020; (2) the actions constituting the offense are in violation of a condition of probation, release before trial, release after conviction, or parole; (3) the victim is under 16 years of age; (4) at any time during the course of conduct constituting the offense, the defendant possessed a deadly weapon; (5) the defendant has been previously convicted of a crime under this section, AS 11.41.270, or AS 11.56.740, or a law or ordinance of this or another jurisdiction with elements similar to a crime under this section, AS 11.41.270, or AS 11.56.740; or (6) the defendant has been previously convicted of a crime, or an attempt or solicitation to commit a crime, under (A) AS 11.41.100 — 11.41.250, 11.41.300 — 11.41.460, AS 11.56.807, 11.56.810, AS 11.61.118, 11.61.120, or (B) a law or an ordinance of this or another jurisdiction with elements similar to a crime, or an attempt or solicitation to commit a crime, under AS 11.41.100 — 11.41.250, 11.41.300 — 11.41.460, AS 11.56.807, 11.56.810, AS 11.61.118, or 11.61.120, involving the same victim as the present offense. (b) In this section, “course of conduct” and “victim” have the meanings given in AS 11.41.270(b). (c) Stalking in the first degree is a class C felony. Alaska Stat. § 11.41.270. Stalking in the second degree. (2011) (a) A person commits the crime of stalking in the second degree if the person knowingly engages in a course of conduct that recklessly places another person in fear of death or physical injury, or in fear of the death or physical injury of a family member. (b) In this section, (1) “course of conduct” means repeated acts of nonconsensual contact involving the victim or a family member; (2) “device” includes software; (3) “family member” means a (A) spouse, child, grandchild, parent, grandparent, sibling, uncle, aunt, nephew, or niece, of the victim, whether related by blood, marriage, or adoption; (B) person who lives, or has previously lived, in a spousal relationship with the victim; (C) person who lives in the same household as the victim; or (D) person who is a former spouse of the victim or is or has been in a dating, courtship, or engagement relationship with the victim; (4) “nonconsensual contact” means any contact with another person that is initiated or continued without that person’s consent, that is beyond the scope of the consent provided by that person, or that is in disregard of that person’s expressed desire that the contact be avoided or discontinued; “nonconsensual contact” includes (A) following or appearing within the sight of that person; (B) approaching or confronting that person in a public place or on private property; (C) appearing at the workplace or residence of that person; (D) entering onto or remaining on property owned, leased, or occupied by that person; (E) contacting that person by telephone; (F) sending mail or electronic communications to that person; (G) placing an object on, or delivering an object to, property owned, leased, or occupied by that person; (H) following or monitoring that person with a global positioning device or similar technological means; (I) using, installing, or attempting to use or install a device for observing, recording, or photographing events occurring in the residence, vehicle, or workplace used by that person, or on the personal telephone or computer used by that person; (5) “victim” means a person who is the target of a course of conduct. (c) Stalking in the second degree is a class A misdemeanor.

Arizona

A.R.S. § 13-2923. Stalking; classification; definitions. (2012) A. A person commits stalking if the person intentionally or knowingly engages in a course of conduct that is directed toward another person and if that conduct either: 1. Would cause a reasonable person to fear for the person’s safety or the safety of that person’s immediate family member and that person in fact fears for the person’s safety or the safety of that person’s immediate family member. 2. Would cause a reasonable person to fear death of that person or that person’s immediate family member and that person in fact fears death of that person or that person’s immediate family member. B. Stalking under subsection A, paragraph 1 of this section is a class 5 felony. Stalking under subsection A, paragraph 2 is a class 3 felony. C. For the purposes of this section: 1. “Course of conduct:” (a) Means any of the following: (i) Maintaining visual or physical proximity to a specific person or directing verbal, written, or other threats, whether express or implied, to a specific person on two or more occasions over a period of time, however short. (ii) Using any electronic, digital or global positioning system device to surveil a specific person or a specific person’s internet or wireless activity continuously for 12 hours or more or on two or more occasions over a period of time, however short, without authorization. (b) Does not include constitutionally protected activity or other activity authorized by law, the other person, the other person’s authorized representative or if the other person is a minor, the minor’s parent or guardian. 2. “Immediate family member” means a spouse, parent, child or sibling or any other person who regularly resides in a person’s household or resided in a person’s household within the past six months.

California

Cal Pen Code § 646.9 . Stalking. (2008) (a) Any person who willfully, maliciously, and repeatedly follows or willfully and maliciously harasses another person and who makes a credible threat with the intent to place that person in reasonable fear for his or her safety, or the safety of his or her immediate family is guilty of the crime of stalking, punishable by imprisonment in a county jail for not more than one year, or by a fine of not more than one thousand dollars ($1,000), or by both that fine and imprisonment, or by imprisonment in the state prison. (b) Any person who violates subdivision (a) when there is a temporary restraining order, injunction, or any other court order in effect prohibiting the behavior described in subdivision (a) against the same party, shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for two, three, or four years. (c) (1) Every person who, after having been convicted of a felony under Section 273.5, 273.6, or 422, commits a violation of subdivision (a) shall be punished by imprisonment in a county jail for not more than one year, or by a fine of not more than one thousand dollars ($1,000), or by both that fine and imprisonment, or by imprisonment in the state prison for two, three, or five years. (2) Every person who, after having been convicted of a felony under subdivision (a), commits a violation of this section shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for two, three, or five years. (d) In addition to the penalties provided in this section, the sentencing court may order a person convicted of a felony under this section to register as a sex offender pursuant to Section 290.006. (e) For the purposes of this section, “harasses” means engages in a knowing and willful course of conduct directed at a specific person that seriously alarms, annoys, torments, or terrorizes the person, and that serves no legitimate purpose. (f) For the purposes of this section, “course of conduct” means two or more acts occurring over a period of time, however short, evidencing a continuity of purpose. Constitutionally protected activity is not included within the meaning of “course of conduct.” (g) For the purposes of this section, “credible threat” means a verbal or written threat, including that performed through the use of an electronic communication device, or a threat implied by a pattern of conduct or a combination of verbal, written, or electronically communicated statements and conduct, made with the intent to place the person that is the target of the threat in reasonable fear for his or her safety or the safety of his or her family, and made with the apparent ability to carry out the threat so as to cause the person who is the target of the threat to reasonably fear for his or her safety or the safety of his or her family. It is not necessary to prove that the defendant had the intent to actually carry out the threat. The present incarceration of a person making the threat shall not be a bar to prosecution under this section. Constitutionally protected activity is not included within the meaning of “credible threat.” (h) For purposes of this section, the term “electronic communication device” includes, but is not limited to, telephones, cellular phones, computers, video recorders, fax machines, or pagers. “Electronic communication” has the same meaning as the term defined in Subsection 12 of Section 2510 of Title 18 of the United States Code. (i) This section shall not apply to conduct that occurs during labor picketing. (j) If probation is granted, or the execution or imposition of a sentence is suspended, for any person convicted under this section, it shall be a condition of probation that the person participate in counseling, as designated by the court. However, the court, upon a showing of good cause, may find that the counseling requirement shall not be imposed. (k) (1) The sentencing court also shall consider issuing an order restraining the defendant from any contact with the victim, that may be valid for up to 10 years, as determined by the court. It is the intent of the Legislature that the length of any restraining order be based upon the seriousness of the facts before the court, the probability of future violations, and the safety of the victim and his or her immediate family. (2) This protective order may be issued by the court whether the defendant is sentenced to state prison, county jail, or if imposition of sentence is suspended and the defendant is placed on probation. (l) For purposes of this section, “immediate family” means any spouse, parent, child, any person related by consanguinity or affinity within the second degree, or any other person who regularly resides in the household, or who, within the prior six months, regularly resided in the household. (m) The court shall consider whether the defendant would benefit from treatment pursuant to Section 2684. If it is determined to be appropriate, the court shall recommend that the Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation make a certification as provided in Section 2684. Upon the certification, the defendant shall be evaluated and transferred to the appropriate hospital for treatment pursuant to Section 2684.

Colorado

C.R.S. 18-3-601. [Formerly 18-9-111 (4) (a)] Legislative declaration. (2010) (1) The general assembly hereby finds and declares that: (a) Stalking is a serious problem in this state and nationwide; (b) Although stalking often involves persons who have had an intimate relationship with one another, it can also involve persons who have little or no past relationship; (c) A stalker will often maintain strong, unshakable, and irrational emotional feelings for his or her victim, and may likewise believe that the victim either returns these feelings of affection or will do so if the stalker is persistent enough. Further, the stalker often maintains this belief, despite a trivial or nonexistent basis for it and despite rejection, lack of reciprocation, efforts to restrict or avoid the stalker, and other facts that conflict with this belief. (d) A stalker may also develop jealousy and animosity for persons who are in relationships with the victim, including family members, employers and co-workers, and friends, perceiving them as obstacles or as threats to the stalker’s own “relationship” with the victim; (e) Because stalking involves highly inappropriate intensity, persistence, and possessiveness, it entails great unpredictability and creates great stress and fear for the victim; (f) Stalking involves severe intrusions on the victim’s personal privacy and autonomy, with an immediate and long-lasting impact on quality of life as well as risks to security and safety of the victim and persons close to the victim, even in the absence of express threats of physical harm. (2) The general assembly hereby recognizes the seriousness posed by stalking and adopts the provisions of this part 6 with the goal of encouraging and authorizing effective intervention before stalking can escalate into behavior that has even more serious consequences. C.R.S. 18-3-602. Stalking – penalty – definitions – Vonnie’s Law. (2012) (1) A person commits stalking if directly, or indirectly, through another person, the person knowingly: (a) Makes a credible threat to another person and, in connection with the threat, repeatedly follows, approaches, contacts, or places under surveillance that person, a member of that person’s immediate family, or someone with whom that person has or has had a continuing relationship; or (b) Makes a credible threat to another person and, in connection with the threat, repeatedly makes any form of communication with that person, a member of that person’s immediate family, or someone with whom that person has or has had a continuing relationship, regardless of whether a conversation ensues; or (c) Repeatedly follows, approaches, contacts, places under surveillance, or makes any form of communication with another person, a member of that person’s immediate family, or someone with whom that person has or has had a continuing relationship in a manner that would cause a reasonable person to suffer serious emotional distress and does cause that person, a member of that person’s immediate family, or someone with whom that person has or has had a continuing relationship to suffer serious emotional distress. For purposes of this paragraph (c), a victim need not show that he or she received professional treatment or counseling to show that he or she suffered serious emotional distress. (2) For the purposes of this part 6: (a) Conduct “in connection with” a credible threat means acts that further, advance, promote, or have a continuity of purpose, and may occur before, during, or after the credible threat. (b) “Credible threat” means a threat, physical action, or repeated conduct that would cause a reasonable person to be in fear for the person’s safety or the safety of his or her immediate family or of someone with whom the person has or has had a continuing relationship. The threat need not be directly expressed if the totality of the conduct would cause a reasonable person such fear. (c) “Immediate family” includes the person’s spouse and the person’s parent, grandparent, sibling, or child. (d) “Repeated” or “repeatedly” means on more than one occasion. (3) A person who commits stalking: (a) Commits a class 5 felony for a first offense except as otherwise provided in subsection (5) of this section; or (b) Commits a class 4 felony for a second or subsequent offense, if the offense occurs within seven years after the date of a prior offense for which the person was convicted. (4) Stalking is an extraordinary risk crime that is subject to the modified presumptive sentencing range specified in section 18-1.3-401 (10). (5) If, at the time of the offense, there was a temporary or permanent protection order, injunction, or condition of bond, probation, or parole or any other court order in effect against the person, prohibiting the behavior described in this section, the person commits a class 4 felony. (6) Nothing in this section shall be construed to alter or diminish the inherent authority of the court to enforce its orders through civil or criminal contempt proceedings; however, before a criminal contempt proceeding is heard before the court, notice of the proceedings shall be provided to the district attorney for the judicial district of the court where the proceedings are to be heard and the district attorney for the judicial district in which the alleged act of criminal contempt occurred. The district attorney for either district shall be allowed to appear and argue for the imposition of contempt sanctions. (7) A peace officer shall have a duty to respond as soon as reasonably possible to a report of stalking and to cooperate with the alleged victim in investigating the report. (8) (a) When a person is arrested for an alleged violation of this section, the fixing of bail for the crime of stalking shall be done in accordance with section 16-4-103 (2) (d), C.R.S., and a protection order shall issue in accordance with section 18-1-1001(5). (b) This subsection (8) shall be known and may be cited as “Vonnie’s law.” (9) When a violation under this section is committed in connection with a violation of a court order, including but not limited to any protection order or any order that sets forth the conditions of a bond, any sentences imposed pursuant to this section and pursuant to section 18-6-803.5, or any sentence imposed in a contempt proceeding for violation of the court order shall be served consecutively and not concurrently.

Connecticut

Conn. Gen. Stat. § 53a-181c. Stalking in the first degree: Class D felony. (2012) (a) A person is guilty of stalking in the first degree when such person commits stalking in the second degree as provided in section 53a-181d, as amended by this act, and (1) such person has previously been convicted of a violation of section 53a-181d, as amended by this act, or (2) such conduct violates a court order in effect at the time of the offense, or (3) the other person is under sixteen years of age. (b) Stalking in the first degree is a class D felony. Conn. Gen. Stat. § 53a-181d. Stalking in the second degree: Class A misdemeanor. (2012) (a) For the purposes of this section, “course of conduct” means two or more acts, including, but not limited to, acts in which a person directly, indirectly or through a third party, by any action, method, device or means, (1) follows, lies in wait for, monitors, observes, surveils, threatens, harasses, communicates with or sends unwanted gifts to, a person, or (2) interferes with a person’s property. (b) A person is guilty of stalking in the second degree when: (1) Such person knowingly engages in a course of conduct directed at a specific person that would cause a reasonable person to fear for such person’s physical safety or the physical safety of a third person; or (2) Such person intentionally, and for no legitimate purpose, engages in a course of conduct directed at a specific person that would cause a reasonable person to fear that such person’s employment, business or career is threatened, where (A) such conduct consists of the actor telephoning to, appearing at or initiating communication or contact at such other person’s place of employment or business, provided the actor was previously and clearly informed to cease such conduct, and (B) such conduct does not consist of constitutionally protected activity. (c) Stalking in the second degree is a class A misdemeanor. Conn. Gen. Stat. § 53a-181e. Stalking in the third degree: Class B misdemeanor. (1995) (a) A person is guilty of stalking in the third degree when he recklessly causes another person to reasonably fear for his physical safety by willfully and repeatedly following or lying in wait for such other person. (b) Stalking in the third degree is a class B misdemeanor. Sec. 53a-181f. Electronic stalking: Class B misdemeanor. (a) A person is guilty of electronic stalking when such person recklessly causes another person to reasonably fear for his or her physical safety by willfully and repeatedly using a global positioning system or similar electronic monitoring system to remotely determine or track the position or movement of such other person. (b) Electronic stalking is a class B misdemeanor.

Delaware

11 Del. C. § 1312. Stalking; class G felony, class F felony, class C felony. (2008) (a) A person is guilty of stalking when the person knowingly engages in a course of conduct directed at a specific person and that conduct would cause a reasonable person to: (1) Fear physical injury to himself or herself or that of another person; or (2) Suffer other significant mental anguish or distress that may, but does not necessarily, require medical or other professional treatment or counseling. (b) A violation of subsection (a) of this section is a class G felony. (c) Stalking is a class F felony if a person is guilty of stalking and 1 or more of the following exists: (1) The person is age 21 or older and the victim is under the age of 14; or (2) The person violated any order prohibiting contact with the victim; or (3) The victim is age 62 years of age or older; or (4) The course of conduct includes a threat of death or threat of serious physical injury to the victim, or to another person; or (5) The person causes physical injury to the victim. (d) Stalking is a class C felony if the person is guilty of stalking and 1 or more of the following exists: (1) The person possesses a deadly weapon during any act; or (2) The person causes serious physical injury to the victim. (e) Definitions. — The following terms shall have the following meaning as used in this section: (1) “Course of conduct” means 3 or more separate incidents, including, but not limited to, acts in which the person directly, indirectly, or through third parties, by any action, method, device, or means, follows, monitors, observes, surveys, threatens, or communicates to or about another, or interferes with, jeopardizes, damages, or disrupts another’s daily activities, property, employment, business, career, education, or medical care. A conviction is not required for any predicate act relied upon to establish a course of conduct. A conviction for any predicate act relied upon to establish a course of conduct does not preclude prosecution under this section. Prosecution under this section does not preclude prosecution under any other section of the Code. (2) “A reasonable person” means a reasonable person in the victim’s circumstances. (f) Notwithstanding any contrary provision of § 4205 of this title, any person who commits the crime of stalking by engaging in a course of conduct which includes any act or acts which have previously been prohibited by a then-existing court order or sentence shall receive a minimum sentence of 6 months incarceration at Level V. The first 6 months of said period of incarceration shall not be subject to suspension. (g) Notwithstanding any contrary provision of § 4205 of this title, any person who is convicted of stalking within 5 years of a prior conviction of stalking shall receive a minimum sentence of 1 year incarceration at Level V. The first year of said period of incarceration shall not be subject to suspension. (h) In any prosecution under this law, it shall not be a defense that the perpetrator was not given actual notice that the course of conduct was unwanted; or that the perpetrator did not intend to cause the victim fear or other emotional distress. (i) In any prosecution under this section, it is an affirmative defense that the person charged was engaged in lawful picketing. (j) This section shall not apply to conduct which occurs in furtherance of legitimate activities of law-enforcement, private investigators, security officers or private detectives as those activities are defined in Chapter 13 of Title 24.

Florida

Fla. Stat. § 784.048. Stalking; definitions; penalties. (2012) (1) As used in this section, the term: (a) “Harass” means to engage in a course of conduct directed at a specific person which causes substantial emotional distress to that person and serves no legitimate purpose. (b) “Course of conduct” means a pattern of conduct composed of a series of acts over a period of time, however short, which evidences a continuity of purpose. The term does not include constitutionally protected activity such as picketing or other organized protests. (c) “Credible threat” means a verbal or nonverbal threat, or a combination of the two, including threats delivered by electronic communication or implied by a pattern of conduct, which places the person who is the target of the threat in reasonable fear for his or her safety or the safety of his or her family members or individuals closely associated with the person, and which is made with the apparent ability to carry out the threat to cause such harm. It is not necessary to prove that the person making the threat had the intent to actually carry out the threat. The present incarceration of the person making the threat is not a bar to prosecution under this section. (d) “Cyberstalk” means to engage in a course of conduct to communicate, or to cause to be communicated, words, images, or language by or through the use of electronic mail or electronic communication, directed at a specific person, causing substantial emotional distress to that person and serving no legitimate purpose. (2) A person who willfully, maliciously, and repeatedly follows, harasses, or cyberstalks another person commits the offense of stalking, a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083. (3) A person who willfully, maliciously, and repeatedly follows, harasses, or cyberstalks another person and makes a credible threat to that person commits the offense of aggravated stalking, a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. (4) A person who, after an injunction for protection against repeat violence, sexual violence, or dating violence pursuant to s. 784.046, or an injunction for protection against domestic violence pursuant to s. 741.30, or after any other court-imposed prohibition of conduct toward the subject person or that person’s property, knowingly, willfully, maliciously, and repeatedly follows, harasses, or cyberstalks another person commits the offense of aggravated stalking, a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. (5) A person who willfully, maliciously, and repeatedly follows, harasses, or cyberstalks a child under 16 years of age commits the offense of aggravated stalking, a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. (6) A law enforcement officer may arrest, without a warrant, any person that he or she has probable cause to believe has violated this section. (7) A person who, after having been sentenced for a violation of s. 794.011, s. 800.04, or s. 847.0135(5) and prohibited from contacting the victim of the offense under s. 921.244, willfully, maliciously, and repeatedly follows, harasses, or cyberstalks the victim commits the offense of aggravated stalking, a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. (8) The punishment imposed under this section shall run consecutive to any former sentence imposed for a conviction for any offense under s. 794.011, s. 800.04, or s. 847.0135(5). (9) (a) The sentencing court shall consider, as a part of any sentence, issuing an order restraining the defendant from any contact with the victim, which may be valid for up to 10 years, as determined by the court. It is the intent of the Legislature that the length of any such order be based upon the seriousness of the facts before the court, the probability of future violations by the perpetrator, and the safety of the victim and his or her family members or individuals closely associated with the victim. (b) The order may be issued by the court even if the defendant is sentenced to a state prison or a county jail or even if the imposition of the sentence is suspended and the defendant is placed on probation. Electronic Stalking § 934.425 Installation of tracking devices or tracking 21 applications; exceptions; penalties (1) As used in this section, the term: (a) “Business entity” means any form of corporation, partnership, association, cooperative, joint venture, business trust, or sole proprietorship that conducts business in this state. (b) “Tracking application” means any software program whose primary purpose is to track or identify the location or movement of an individual. (c) “Tracking device” means any device whose primary purpose is to reveal its location or movement by the transmission of electronic signals. (d) “Person” means an individual but does not include a business entity. (2) Except as provided in subsection (4), a person may not knowingly install a tracking device or tracking application on another person’s property without the other person’s consent. (3) For purposes of this section, a person’s consent is presumed to be revoked if: (a) The consenting person and the person to whom consent was given are lawfully married and one person files a petition for dissolution of marriage from the other; or (b) The consenting person or the person to whom consent was given files an injunction for protection against the other person pursuant tos. 741.30, s. 741.315, s. 784.046, or s. 784.0485. (4) This section does not apply to: (a) A law enforcement officer as defined in s. 943.10, or any local, state, federal, or military law enforcement agency, that lawfully installs a tracking device or tracking application on another person’s property as part of a criminal investigation. (b) A parent or legal guardian of a minor child who installs a tracking device or tracking application on the minor child’s property if: The parents or legal guardians are lawfully married to each other and are not separated or otherwise living apart, and either parent or legal guardian consents to the installation of the tracking device or tracking application; The parent or legal guardian is the sole surviving parent or legal guardian of the minor child; The parent or legal guardian has sole custody of the minor child; or The parents or legal guardians are divorced, separated, or otherwise living apart and both consent to the installation of the tracking device or tracking application. (c) A caregiver of an elderly person or disabled adult, as those terms are defined in s. 825.101, if the elderly person’s or disabled adult’s treating physician certifies that the installation of a tracking device or tracking application onto the elderly person’s or disabled adult’s property is necessary to ensure the safety of the elderly person or disabled adult. (d) A person acting in good faith on behalf of a business entity for a legitimate business purpose. This paragraph does not apply to a person engaged in private investigation, as defined in s. 493.6101, on behalf of another person unless such activities would otherwise be exempt under this subsection if performed by the person engaging the private investigator. (e) An owner or lessee of a motor vehicle that installs, or directs the installation of, a tracking device or tracking application on such vehicle during the period of ownership or lease, provided that: The tracking device or tracking application is removed before the vehicle’s title is transferred or the vehicle’s lease expires, The new owner of the vehicle, in the case of a sale, or the lessor of the vehicle, in the case of an expired lease, consents in writing to the nonremoval of the tracking device or tracking application; or The owner of the vehicle at the time of the installation of the tracking device or tracking application was the original manufacturer of the vehicle. (5) A person who violates this section commits a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

Georgia

O.C.G.A. § 16-5-90 Stalking; psychological evaluation. (2000) (a) (1) A person commits the offense of stalking when he or she follows, places under surveillance, or contacts another person at or about a place or places without the consent of the other person for the purpose of harassing and intimidating the other person. For the purpose of this article, the terms “computer” and “computer network” shall have the same meanings as set out in Code Section 16-9-92; the term “contact” shall mean any communication including without being limited to communication in person, by telephone, by mail, by broadcast, by computer, by computer network, or by any other electronic device; and the place or places that contact by telephone, mail, broadcast, computer, computer network, or any other electronic device is deemed to occur shall be the place or places where such communication is received. For the purpose of this article, the term “place or places” shall include any public or private property occupied by the victim other than the residence of the defendant. For the purposes of this article, the term “harassing and intimidating” means a knowing and willful course of conduct directed at a specific person which causes emotional distress by placing such person in reasonable fear for such person’s safety or the safety of a member of his or her immediate family, by establishing a pattern of harassing and intimidating behavior, and which serves no legitimate purpose. This Code section shall not be construed to require that an overt threat of death or bodily injury has been made. (2) A person commits the offense of stalking when such person, in violation of a bond to keep the peace posted pursuant to Code Section 17-6-110, standing order issued under Code Section 19-1-1, temporary restraining order, temporary protective order, permanent restraining order, permanent protective order, preliminary injunction, or permanent injunction or condition of pretrial release, condition of probation, or condition of parole in effect prohibiting the harassment or intimidation of another person, broadcasts or publishes, including electronic publication, the picture, name, address, or phone number of a person for whose benefit the bond, order, or condition was made and without such person’s consent in such a manner that causes other persons to harass or intimidate such person and the person making the broadcast or publication knew or had reason to believe that such broadcast or publication would cause such person to be harassed or intimidated by others. (b) Except as provided in subsection (c) of this Code section, a person who commits the offense of stalking is guilty of a misdemeanor. (c) Upon the second conviction, and all subsequent convictions, for stalking, the defendant shall be guilty of a felony and shall be punished by imprisonment for not less than one year nor more than ten years. (d) Before sentencing a defendant for any conviction of stalking under this Code section or aggravated stalking under Code Section 16-5-91, the sentencing judge may require psychological evaluation of the offender and shall consider the entire criminal record of the offender. At the time of sentencing, the judge is authorized to issue a permanent restraining order against the offender to protect the person stalked and the members of such person’s immediate family, and the judge is authorized to require psychological treatment of the offender as a part of the sentence, or as a condition for suspension or stay of sentence, or for probation. O.C.G.A. § 16-5-91. Aggravated stalking. (2002) (a) A person commits the offense of aggravated stalking when such person, in violation of a bond to keep the peace posted pursuant to Code Section 17-6-110, temporary restraining order, temporary protective order, permanent restraining order, permanent protective order, preliminary injunction, good behavior bond, or permanent injunction or condition of pretrial release, condition of probation, or condition of parole in effect prohibiting the behavior described in this subsection, follows, places under surveillance, or contacts another person at or about a place or places without the consent of the other person for the purpose of harassing and intimidating the other person. (b) Any person convicted of a violation of subsection (a) of this Code section shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be punished by imprisonment for not less than one nor more than ten years and by a fine of not more than $10,000.00. The provisions of subsection (d) of Code Section 16-5-90 apply to sentencing for conviction of aggravated stalking. O.C.G.A. § 16-5-92. Applicability. (1993) The provisions of Code Sections 16-5-90 and 16-5-91 shall not apply to persons engaged in activities protected by the Constitution of the United States or of this state or to persons or employees of such persons lawfully engaged in bona fide business activity or lawfully engaged in the practice of a profession. O.C.G.A. § 16-5-93. Right of victim to notification of release or escape of stalker. (1997) (a) The victim of stalking or aggravated stalking shall be entitled to notice of the release from custody of the person arrested for and charged with the offense of stalking or aggravated stalking and to notice of any hearing on the issue of bail for such person. No such notice shall be required unless the victim provides a landline telephone number other than a pocket pager or electronic communication device number to which such notice can be directed. (b) The law enforcement agency, prosecutor, or court directly involved with the victim at the outset of a criminal prosecution for the offense of stalking or aggravated stalking shall advise the victim of his or her right to notice and of the requirement of the victim’s providing a landline telephone number other than a pocket pager or electronic communication device number to which the notice of custodial release or bail hearing can be directed. Such victim shall transmit the telephone number described in this subsection to the court and custodian of the person charged with stalking or aggravated stalking. (c) Upon receipt of the telephone number, the custodian of the person charged with stalking or aggravated stalking shall take reasonable and necessary steps under the circumstances to notify the victim of the person’s release from custody. Such notice shall, at a minimum, include: (1) Prior to the person’s release, placing a telephone call to the number provided by the victim and giving notice to the victim or any person answering the telephone who appears to be sui juris or by leaving an appropriate message on a telephone answering machine; and (2) Following the person’s release, if the custodian is unable to notify the victim by the method provided in paragraph (1) of this subsection, telephoning the number provided by the victim no less than two times in no less than 15 minute intervals within one hour of custodial release and giving notice to the victim or to any person answering the telephone who appears to be sui juris or by leaving an appropriate message on a telephone answering machine. (d) Upon receipt of the telephone number, the court conducting a hearing on the issue of bail shall take reasonable and necessary steps under the circumstances to notify the victim of any scheduled hearing on the issue of bail. Such notice shall, at a minimum, include placing a telephone call to the number provided by the victim prior to any scheduled hearing on the issue of bail. (e) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Code section, a scheduled bail hearing or the release of the person charged with stalking or aggravated stalking shall not be delayed solely for the purpose of effectuating notice pursuant to this Code section for a period of more than 30 minutes. (f) Upon the person’s release or escape from custody after conviction and service of all or a portion of a sentence, notification to the victim shall be provided by the State Board of Pardons and Paroles as set forth in Code Sections 42-9-46 and 42-9-47. (g) This Code section shall not apply to a custodian who is transferring a person charged with stalking or aggravated stalking to another custodian in this state. (h) As used in this Code section, the term “custodian” means a warden, sheriff, jailer, deputy sheriff, police officer, officer or employee of the Department of Juvenile Justice, or any other law enforcement officer having actual custody of an inmate. (i) A custodian or his or her employing agency shall not be liable in damages for a failure to provide the notice required by this Code section, but the custodian shall be subject to appropriate disciplinary action including termination for such failure. O.C.G.A. § 16-5-94. Restraining orders; protective orders. (1999) (a) A person who is not a minor who alleges stalking by another person may seek a restraining order by filing a petition alleging conduct constituting stalking as defined in Code Section 16-5-90. A person who is not a minor may also seek relief on behalf of a minor by filing such a petition. (b) Jurisdiction for such a petition shall be the same as for family violence petitions as set out in Code Section 19-13-2. (c) Upon the filing of a verified petition in which the petitioner alleges with specific facts that probable cause exists to establish that stalking by the respondent has occurred in the past and may occur in the future, the court may order such temporary relief ex parte as it deems necessary to protect the petitioner or a minor of the household from stalking. If the court issues an ex parte order, a copy of the order shall be immediately furnished to the petitioner. (d) The court may grant a protective order or approve a consent agreement to bring about a cessation of conduct constituting stalking. Orders or agreements may: (1) Direct a party to refrain from such conduct; (2) Order a party to refrain from harassing or interfering with the other; (3) Award costs and attorney’s fees to either party; and (4) Order either or all parties to receive appropriate psychiatric or psychological services as a further measure to prevent the recurrence of stalking. (e) The provisions of subsections (c) and (d) of Code Section 19-13-3, subsections (b), (c), and (d) of Code Section 19-13-4, and Code Section 19-13-5, relating to family violence petitions, shall apply to petitions filed pursuant to this Code section, except that the clerk of court may provide forms for petitions and pleadings to persons alleging conduct constituting stalking and to any other person designated by the superior court pursuant to this Code section as authorized to advise persons alleging conduct constituting stalking on filling out and filing such petitions and pleadings.

Missouri

R.S.Mo. § 565.225. Crime of stalking — definitions – penalties. (2008) 1. As used in this section, the following terms shall mean: (1) “Course of conduct”, a pattern of conduct composed of two or more acts, which may include communication by any means, over a period of time, however short, evidencing a continuity of purpose. Constitutionally protected activity is not included within the meaning of course of conduct. Such constitutionally protected activity includes picketing or other organized protests; (2) “Credible threat”, a threat communicated with the intent to cause the person who is the target of the threat to reasonably fear for his or her safety, or the safety of his or her family, or household members or domestic animals or livestock as defined in section 276.606, RSMo, kept at such person’s residence or on such person’s property. The threat must be against the life of, or a threat to cause physical injury to, or the kidnapping of, the person, the person’s family, or the person’s household members or domestic animals or livestock as defined in section 276.606, RSMo, kept at such person’s residence or on such person’s property; (3) “Harasses”, to engage in a course of conduct directed at a specific person that serves no legitimate purpose, that would cause a reasonable person under the circumstances to be frightened, intimidated, or emotionally distressed. 2. A person commits the crime of stalking if he or she purposely, through his or her course of conduct, harasses or follows with the intent of harassing another person. 3. A person commits the crime of aggravated stalking if he or she purposely, through his or her course of conduct, harasses or follows with the intent of harassing another person, and: (1) Makes a credible threat; or (2) At least one of the acts constituting the course of conduct is in violation of an order of protection and the person has received actual notice of such order; or (3) At least one of the actions constituting the course of conduct is in violation of a condition of probation, parole, pretrial release, or release on bond pending appeal; or (4) At any time during the course of conduct, the other person is seventeen years of age or younger and the person harassing the other person is twenty-one years of age or older; or (5) He or she has previously pleaded guilty to or been found guilty of domestic assault, violation of an order of protection, or any other crime where the other person was the victim. 4. The crime of stalking shall be a class A misdemeanor unless the person has previously pleaded guilty to or been found guilty of a violation of this section, or of any offense committed in violation of any county or municipal ordinance in any state, any state law, any federal law, or any military law which, if committed in this state, would be chargeable or indictable as a violation of any offense listed in this section, in which case stalking shall be a class D felony. 5. The crime of aggravated stalking shall be a class D felony unless the person has previously pleaded guilty to or been found guilty of a violation of this section, or of any offense committed in violation of any county or municipal ordinance in any state, any state law, any federal law, or any military law which, if committed in this state, would be chargeable or indictable as a violation of any offense listed in this section, aggravated stalking shall be a class C felony. 6. Any law enforcement officer may arrest, without a warrant, any person he or she has probable cause to believe has violated the provisions of this section. 7. This section shall not apply to activities of federal, state, county, or municipal law enforcement officers conducting investigations of violation of federal, state, county, or municipal law.

Oklahoma

Stalking 21 Okl. St. § 1173. Stalking-Penalties. (2000) A. Any person who willfully, maliciously, and repeatedly follows or harasses another person in a manner that: 1. Would cause a reasonable person or a member of the immediate family of that person as defined in subsection F of this section to feel frightened, intimidated, threatened, harassed, or molested; and 2. Actually causes the person being followed or harassed to feel terrorized, frightened, intimidated, threatened, harassed, or molested, shall, upon conviction, be guilty of the crime of stalking, which is a misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment in a county jail for not more than one (1) year, or by a fine of not more than One Thousand Dollars ($1,000.00), or by both such fine and imprisonment. B. Any person who violates the provisions of subsection A of this section when: 1. There is a permanent or temporary restraining order, a protective order, an emergency ex parte protective order, or an injunction in effect prohibiting the behavior described in subsection A of this section against the same party, when the person violating the provisions of subsection A of this section has actual notice of the issuance of such order or injunction; 2. Said person is on probation or parole, a condition of which prohibits the behavior described in subsection A of this section against the same party or under the conditions of a community or alternative punishment; or 3. Said person, within ten (10) years preceding the violation of subsection A of this section, completed the execution of sentence for a conviction of a crime involving the use or threat of violence against the same party, or against any member of the immediate family of such party, shall, upon conviction, be guilty of a felony punishable by imprisonment in the custody of the Department of Corrections for a term not exceeding five (5) years, or by a fine of not more than Two Thousand Five Hundred Dollars ($2,500.00), or by both such fine and imprisonment. C. Any person who : 1. Commits a second act of stalking within ten (10) years of the completion of sentence for a prior conviction of stalking; or 2. Has a prior conviction of stalking and, after being served with a protective order that prohibits contact with an individual, knowingly makes unconsented contact with the same individual, shall, upon conviction , be guilty of a felony punishable by imprisonment in the custody of the Department of Corrections for a term not exceeding five (5) years, or by a fine of not less than Two Thousand Five Hundred Dollars ($2,500.00), or by both such fine and imprisonment. D. Any person who commits an act of stalking within ten (10) years of the completion of execution of sentence for a prior conviction under subsection B or C of this section, shall, upon conviction thereof, be guilty of a felony punishable by a fine of not less than Two Thousand Five Hundred Dollars ($2,500.00) nor more than Ten Thousand Dollars ($10,000.00), or by imprisonment in the State Penitentiary for a term not exceeding ten (10) years, or by both such fine and imprisonment. E. Evidence that the defendant continued to engage in a course of conduct involving repeated unconsented contact, as defined in subsection F of this section, with the victim after having been requested by the victim to discontinue the same or any other form of unconsented contact, and to refrain from any further unconsented contact with the victim, shall give rise to a rebuttable presumption that the continuation of the course of conduct caused the victim to feel terrorized, frightened, intimidated, threatened, harassed, or molested. F. For purposes of this section: 1. “Harasses” means a pattern or course of conduct directed toward another individual that includes, but is not limited to, repeated or continuing unconsented contact, that would cause a reasonable person to suffer emotional distress, and that actually causes emotional distress to the victim. Harassment shall include harassing or obscene phone calls as prohibited by Section 1172 of this title and conduct prohibited by Section 850 of this title. Harassment does not include constitutionally protected activity or conduct that serves a legitimate purpose; 2. “Course of conduct” means a pattern of conduct composed of a series of two or more separate acts over a period of time, however short, evidencing a continuity of purpose. Constitutionally protected activity is not included within the meaning of “course of conduct”; 3. “Emotional distress” means significant mental suffering or distress that may, but does not necessarily require, medical or other professional treatment or counseling; 4. “Unconsented contact” means any contact with another individual that is initiated or continued without the consent of the individual, or in disregard of that individual’s expressed desire that the contact be avoided or discontinued. Constitutionally protected activity is not included within the meaning of unconsented contact. Unconsented contact includes but is not limited to any of the following: a. following or appearing within the sight of that individual, b. approaching or confronting that individual in a public place or on private property, c. appearing at the workplace or residence of that individual, d. entering onto or remaining on property owned, leased, or occupied by that individual, e. contacting that individual by telephone, f. sending mail or electronic communications to that individual, and g. placing an object on, or delivering an object to, property owned, leased, or occupied by that individual; and 5. “Member of the immediate family”, for the purposes of this section, means any spouse, parent, child, person related within the third degree of consanguinity or affinity or any other person who regularly resides in the household or who regularly resided in the household within the prior six (6) months.

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